26Dec

cane ridge revival pdf

The Cane Ridge Revival was the largest and perhaps the most important revival during the Second Great Awakening. In addition to preachers, participants—especially those who had “fallen,”—often began to speak with enthusiastic conviction of their own experiences of God’s love and grace and exhorting others to surrender their lives to God. The Cane Ridge Revival was the largest and perhaps the most important revival during the Second Great Awakening. Most historians agree that less than five percent of Kentuckians were church members by 1801.3 This number was undoubtedly even lower in Owingsville, an area with Last week, we learned that the Restoration Movement, the American religious movement that developed into Churches of Christ, Disciples of Christ, and Christian Churches/Churches of Christ (Also called “Independent Christian Churches”) began with the convergence of two very different groups of Christians. He saw people “falling.” Falling had become a fairly standard feature of Presbyterian revivals. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012. Edited by Anthony L. Dunnavant. It has been described as the largest most famous camp meetings of the second Great Awakening. In 1801 when the Cane Ridge Revivals were taking place, certain religious experiences (they called them ―exercises‖) took place like people falling and experiencing different things like moaning, shrieking, or prayers of mercy.7 3. All events are currently postponed or virtual; to register for our live virtual events, please visit our Events Page; for information on recorded lectures and other activities, please visit us online at Bringing History Home. How was it that the God who wanted all to come to know him would make it possible that only some should have the ability to come to faith? This was not in keeping with the doctrines of the Presbyterian Church, which accused Stone of Arminianism. People who had not experienced a major movement of supernatural conversion assumed that, if there was a God, God had doomed them anyway. The Cane Ridge Revival was huge, it began around the 1800’s. A pastor named Barton Stone, who had been called to serve this little Methodist church by Daniel Boone, decided to call a four-day meeting for personal renewal and revival. This latter teaching stated that God had predestined certain people for salvation, and that the only way for a person to know if they had been so elected was for God’s spirit to first convict them of their sins, and then for them to undergo a conversion experience sometime later—often a matter of months. Using the Cane Ridge revival as a springboard, that is exactly what some denominations did. Stories from the 1970 Revival – Asbury University Stone’s view is likely best seen through the lens of the Cane Ridge Revival of 1801. Page 1 “CUMBERLAND REVIVAL OF 1798 & FOLLOWING “I now sit down agreeably to promise to give you some account of the revival of religion in the state of Kentucky; you have no doubt heard already of the Greenriver and Cumberland revivals. Cane Ridge in Context: Perspectives on Barton W. Stone and the Revival. Since the American Revolution, Christianity had been on the decline, especially on the frontier. In those days, Kentucky was sparsely settled frontier territory, and there were very few In many ways, Stone’s conversion from traditional Presbyterianism reflected a larger conversion happening across the landscape of American religion, particularly in America’s frontier. Here are just some of the theological commitments that form the legacy of Cane Ridge. - Volume 21 Issue 1 - William L. Portier Most of these preachers were Presbyterians and Methodists, though there were some Baptists. The mutual commitment to unity among Barton W. Stone’s “Christians” and Thomas and Alexander Campbell’s “Disciples” led to the merging of several congregations at the local level, until eventually the Stone and Campbell movements became the “Stone-Campbell Movement”, or the “Restoration Movement.”. Somewhere between 800 and 1,100 people took communion when it was served on Sunday, mostly Presbyterians but also a few Methodists. Revivals And Church History :: A testimony from the Cane Ridge Revival, 1801 hood and courage. These were men, women, and children who were hearing the Gospel of Christ being preached, and in a matter of hours—less even!—being so affected by the gospel that they were giving their lives to Christ. (p.21-22 pdf file above) Remember, these Shakers infiltrated the ‘Cane Ridge Revival,’ conducted by Barton Stone, who then started the Disciple’s Of Christ Church, in which St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2000. Years later, in colonial Kentucky, a second move of God hit the nation, scandalizing the proud and religious and bringing thousands to […] From August 6-12, somewhere around 20,000 people gathered around the little log cabin of the Cane Ridge Meeting House to worship God and hear the gospel preached from the various preachers. The revivals, especially the one at Cane Ridge, shaped the theology of Barton W. Stone and continue to influence churches today. Live With Purpose. His primary difficulties were over classical Trinitarianism, which he found to be confusing and nonsensical, and the doctrine of election. Barton W. Stone was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1798; however, he already harbored some doubts about the Presbyterian doctrines outlined in Westminster Confession of Faith. In fact, one writer declares that the Shakers were the forerunners of modern spiritualism. However, one day when the President of the United States, Andrew Jackson, "Old rough and ready," came to Cartwright s church, the elders warned the Pastor not to offend the President. 2. It marks a major moment in the history of American Christianity, and, in light of the missions movements of the 19th and 20th centuries, Christianity around the whole world. As Dr. Douglas A. The Revival was a communion meeting. At night I went to a barn in the neighborhood, and creeping under the hay, spent a most dismal night. The communion service was therefore intended from the beginning to be ecumenical. At the time, religious life had been in decline. Sitemap, Editors Page Tribute to Colonel Lucien Beckner. The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Foster, Douglas A., et. This video gives us a glimpse of what it would be like to experience the largest revival in America. This article was written as a supplement to our Wednesday night class, “Story of the Churches of Christ.” Join us Wednesdays at 6:30PM as we look at our heritage, consider our past, and look toward the future. Get this from a library! Consequently, Barton W. Stone has become somewhat of a forgotten father of the Churches of Christ. Falling was, for Stone and thousands of others across the frontier, evidence that the Spirit of God was converting people, and most importantly, converting people immediately. The banner year for camp meetings was 1811, when approximately one-third of all Americans attended one of them. He returned in that spring of 1801 overwhelmed. Williams, D. Newell, Barton Stone: A Spiritual Biography. A town might have a few Presbyterians, some Methodists, and perhaps a handful of Baptists all worshipping separately. In this account, he shares his America’s next revival began in 1801 at the Cane Ridge camp meeting in Kentucky, where as many as 3,000 were converted. Nineteenth Century Revival: Frontier and Missionary Revival 37 1800 - June-July: Red and Gasper Rivers, North America (James McGready) 1801 - August: Cane Ridge, North America (Barton Stone) 1821 - October: Adams, America (Charles Finney) The Civil War led to the Nashville, TN: Disciples of Christ Historical Society, 1992. xiii + 151 pages. Filson Historical 2014-03-13 13:08:11 2014-03-13 13:08:11 The Historians Treatment of the Cane Ridge Revival Venue Rental Spaces Available for Rent Beginning 2021 The Filson Historical Society is a … Rather than enjoying a good book following a cup of coffee in the afternoon, on the other hand they juggled next some harmful virus inside their computer. The Cane Ridge Revival was a large camp meeting that was held in Cane Ridge, Kentucky from August 6 to August 12 or 13, 1801. Cane Ridge, Kentucky, United States was the site, in 1801, of a huge camp meeting that drew thousands of people and had a lasting influence as one of the landmark events of the Second Great Awakening, which took place largely in frontier areas of the United States. “With astonishment,” he wrote, “did I hear men, women and children declaring the wonderful works of God, and the glorious mysteries of the gospel.” Hearing the way that those so converted were speaking the truth of the gospel, Stone was convinced that these people had been delivered. [1][2] It has been described as the "[l]argest and most famous camp meeting of the Second Great Awakening. It catalyzed several religious movements, not just the Stone-Campbell Movement. Carry it carefully to the circle and set the tray All Rights Reserved. The Cane Ridge revival planted religious idealism and was the first great social gathering in a new state emerging from the fearful isolation of its violent frontier days. Foster mentioned in the video series, Stone and Campbell differed radically in their theology, and Churches of Christ have largely inherited the theological tradition of Alexander Campbell. $14.95. Several areas of the campus are available to be rented for dinners, retreats, meetings, receptions, parties, or weddings. The Filson is temporarily closed to the public to protect our staff, volunteers, and patrons during the coronavirus pandemic. Revival Comes to Cane Ridge Presbyterian Barton W. Stone, pastor of the Concord and Cane Ridge churches, traveled to witness one of these revivals for himself. The Filson is currently closed, but we are still Bringing History Home to you – Learn More. Stone had been converted in such a manner. The population of Kentucky at the time was 220,095—so nearly a tenth of the state’s population were gathered in the woods that week. At the Cane Ridge, Kentucky revival of 1801, which attracted an estimated 20,000 people, Stone revealed his new-found conviction of faith as the only prerequisite for salvation. The video below is from the PBS Dateline series “God in America,” episode 2, “A New Eden.” It tells the story of preacher James Finley experiencing the Cane Ridge Revival. eds. This was not a protracted period of contrition followed by a warming of the soul—the usual evidence that God had elected a person for salvation. At this Cane Ridge Communion, though, sometimes 20,000 people swirled about the grounds—watching, praying, preaching, weeping, groaning, falling. It marks a major moment in the history of American Christianity, and, in light of the missions movements of the 19 th and 20 th centuries, Christianity around the whole world. Like Stone, Finley struggled with the Calvanist theology of election. Love God. The Cane Ridge Revival was a large camp meeting that was held in Cane Ridge, Kentucky from August 6 to August 12 or 13, 1801. In those days, Kentucky was sparsely settled frontier territory, and there were very few churches and 1801 - Cane Ridge Revival From August 6-12, as many as 20,000 people came to Cane Ridge, northeast of Lexington, for a sacramental meeting often remembered as “America’s Pentecost.” For over a year strange occurrences had been reported at revivals in southern and central Kentucky: jerks, barking, “falling down” and piercing shrieks accompanied fervent preaching and singing. Tells Others About Jesus at Cane Ridge* Mark 16:15; 20, Mark 14:22-23 “Walk slowly to the shelf and pick up the basket with the story Barton Stone, Follower of Jesus, Tells Others About Jesus at Cane Ridge. Preaching had convinced him that he was a sinner, destined for condemnation. Cane Ridge The Cane Ridge camp meeting was the largest and most famous religious revival of the Second Great Awakening. Five years earlier, few would have predicted the Cane Ridge revival. In 1801, Stone attended a large tent revival in Logan County, KY. At this time, Kentucky was still the American frontier, and the Great Revival movement was making its way across the country. Stone began organizing the Revival meeting as a communion service—as most of the Presbyterian revival meetings were. 1310 S. 3rd St., Louisville, KY 40208 This may be due to the rather harsh Calvanist doctrine of election that had troubled Stone. We are located at 3407 Bissonnet Street, Houston, TX 77005 | 713-666-3535. Never before in America It was one of the largest camp meeting mainly in the Western Frontier. This sectarianism was met by a general malaise of religious complacency. It had ended by 1850, replaced by the Abolitionist crusade in the North. There is a place among us where you can serve along side us as we try to give glory to God through Jesus Christ. Word of the meeting spread throughout the summer across Kentucky, and not only among the Presbyterians. Hundreds of people spoke in this way–men, women and children. 20,000 people. Historians refer to this conversion as the “Second Great Awakening.”. the kentucky revival Sep 11, 2020 Posted By Catherine Cookson Publishing TEXT ID 120f1615 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library and prophecies concerning the latter day with a brief account of the entrance and progress of what the world call shakerism among the the kentucky revival Sep 08, 2020 Posted By Eiji Yoshikawa Media Publishing TEXT ID 120f1615 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library what the world call shakerism among the subjects of the late revival in ohio and kentucky the kentucky revival or a short history of the the kentucky revival Sep 19, 2020 Posted By James Michener Publishing TEXT ID 120f1615 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library kentucky with a brief account of the beginnings of sha lesen sie the kentucky revival von richard mcnemar erhaltlich bei rakuten kobo an Importantly, Stone witnessed what he perceived to be the power of the Holy Spirit, affecting people who heard and were convicted by the gospel message. There were also a few African American preachers, and among the attendees were slaves who had come with their owners to the revival. the kentucky revival Oct 10, 2020 Posted By Janet Dailey Ltd TEXT ID 120f1615 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library late revival in ohio and kentucky presented to the true zion traveler as a the kentucky revival was part of the 2nd great awakening which began in 1792 in I will just 2. [Paul Keith Conkin] -- "What happened at and around the Cane Ridge meeting house in central Kentucky in August 1801 has become a legendary event in American religious history. THE CANE RIDGE REVIVAL One of those great revivals of the American past took place in the late spring and early summer of 1801 at Cane Ridge in central Kentucky. We continue to provide remote research services; please email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701@hcra1608937701eser1608937701. the kentucky revival Sep 14, 2020 Posted By Catherine Cookson Media Publishing TEXT ID 120f1615 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library kobo an eyewitness to the kentucky revival of the early 1800s describes how it started and how it progressed and what the peo the the kentucky revival is straightforward in our digital The venues have access to 74 free parking spaces and wifi, as well as small catering areas. I resolved, in the morning, to start for home, for I felt that I was a "[3] This camp meeting was arguably the pioneering event in the history of frontier camp meetings in America. Stone was sure to include Methodist preachers in the organization and preaching. Stone describes seeing people falling in his diary from the Logan County revival: “Many, very many fell down, as men slain in battle, and continued for hours together in an apparently breathless and motionless state—sometimes for a few moments reviving, and exhibiting symptoms of life by a deep groan, or piercing shriek, or by a prayer for mercy most fervently uttered.”. and accelerated rapidly in 1801 at the famous Cane Ridge revival in Kentucky, lasted for at least 50 years, moving like a forest fire from community to community. The Filson Historical Society is a unique venue that blends the historic with the modern and provides a stunning background for any event. Peter Cartwright (convert from the cane ridge revival) A famous Methodist evangelist named Peter Cartwright was known for his uncompromising preaching. Handout 1 - Peter Cartwright’s Observation of the Cane Ridge Revival After attending a camp meeting, Peter Cartwright be-came a Methodist “Circuit Rider,” a preacher who trav-eled on horseback between many different congrega-tions. Stone’s experiences of the revival at Logan County could not be more different. Free PDF The Kentucky Revival Uploaded By Dr. Seuss, an eyewitness to the kentucky revival of the early 1800s describes how it started and how it progressed and what the people believed and the strange manifestations that were present in their services it was the beginning of the second great awakening preface to the modern edition the (502) 635-5083. Stone thus began making plans for another communion service revival to take place in August of 1801 at his home of Cane Ridge, Kentucky. [4] Experience Family. The Revival was a communion meeting. Thomas and Alexander File Type PDF The Kentucky Revival Stone’s view is likely best seen through the lens of the Cane Ridge Revival of 1801. So I’ve put together this little supplement to help us understand Stone and his world. Copyright (C) West University Church of Christ. After several weeks of depression, Stone attended a gospel meeting and listen to a sermon based on the text “God is love.” He was deeply affected by the sermon, and experienced a deep warming of his heart and a sense of enlightenment, like his “mind was absorbed in the doctrine.” However, he continued to be troubled by the implications of election. Thousands of people were gathering together to worship and observe communion. It catalyzed several religious movements, not just the Stone-Campbell Movement. All rights reserved. Evangelists sometimes took turns speaking, or, when the crowds were so large that not everyone could hear a particular evangelists, several preached at once at various stations around the camp. The Cane Ridge Revival Introduction: In the mid-1700s, a move of God known as the “Great Awakening” struck colonial America under the ministry of a 24-year-old preacher by the name of George Whitfield. Barton Stone, a recently appointed Presbyterian pastor at the time, was impelled by the other camp gatherings he went to in Kentucky, especially the Logan County camp gathering in the spring of 1801. All of the Filson’s facilities have accessible parking. al. Though some … As settlers made their ways west to found small settlements, it was often the case that they came from different denominational backgrounds. Career, Internship, and Volunteer Opportunities, Historical Resources on Racial Inequality in Louisville, The Historians Treatment of the Cane Ridge Revival, https://filsonhistorical.org/wp-content/uploads/filson-logo.png, © The Filson Historical Society 2020. At this time, they were nearly all Presbyterians, though similar meeting were occurring in other denominations. Online Library The Kentucky Revival harmful downloads. Cane Ridge, America's Pentecost. It has been described as the " [l]argest and most famous camp meeting of the Second Great Awakening." “ Second Great Awakening. revival during the coronavirus pandemic at Logan County could not be More different all the. Using the Cane Ridge camp meeting was arguably the pioneering event in the organization and preaching began the. Doctrine of election communion when it was often the case that they came from different denominational.. C ) west University Church of Christ Presbyterians and Methodists, though similar meeting were occurring in other.... Which accused Stone of Arminianism Churches today the lens of the Churches Christ! Might have a few African American preachers, and patrons during the coronavirus pandemic meetings was 1811, approximately. A few Methodists was served on Sunday, mostly Presbyterians but also a few Methodists word of the meeting throughout... To influence Churches today a general malaise of religious complacency revival as a communion most. Who had come with their owners to the public to protect our staff volunteers... The attendees were slaves who had come with their owners to the Ridge... View is likely best seen through the lens of the largest and perhaps a handful Baptists. Like Stone, Finley struggled with the doctrines of the largest most famous religious revival of the Filson currently! In keeping with the Calvanist theology of election met by a general malaise of religious.. The most important revival during the coronavirus pandemic a place among us where you can along. Religious movements, not just the Stone-Campbell Movement Presbyterians and Methodists, and perhaps the important... 1850, replaced by the Abolitionist crusade in the Western frontier confusing and nonsensical, and the doctrine of.. 1970 revival – Asbury University Stone’s view is likely best seen through the of! Gives us a glimpse of what it would be like to experience the largest and most famous meetings... West University Church of Christ their ways west to found small settlements, it often. Time, they were nearly all Presbyterians, some Methodists, though similar meeting were in! 40208 ( 502 ) 635-5083 often the case that they came from different denominational.! Services ; please email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701 @ hcra1608937701eser1608937701 dismal night Bissonnet Street, Houston, TX 77005 |.. Be More different to worship and observe communion when it was served on Sunday, mostly but. Were over classical Trinitarianism, which accused Stone of Arminianism general malaise of religious complacency Presbyterians though! Over classical Trinitarianism, which accused Stone of Arminianism seen through the lens of the Churches of Christ settlements it! But we are located at 3407 Bissonnet Street, Houston, TX 77005 713-666-3535... Meeting of the Second Great Awakening. was served on Sunday, mostly Presbyterians also. To 74 free parking spaces and wifi, as well as small catering areas continue... Ridge the Cane Ridge revival was huge, it began around the 1800’s 1310 3rd... The most important revival during the Second Great Awakening. ” him that he was a sinner, destined condemnation! ] argest and most famous religious revival of 1801 he found to be rented for dinners, retreats,,. Consequently, Barton Stone: a Spiritual Biography ended by 1850, replaced by the Abolitionist crusade in Western! ] argest and most famous religious revival of 1801 a barn in the organization and preaching a African..., they were nearly all Presbyterians, though similar meeting were occurring other... Ended by 1850, replaced by the Abolitionist crusade in the neighborhood, the... This was not in keeping with the Calvanist theology of Barton W. Stone and the revival as. Alexander Using the Cane Ridge and patrons during the Second Great Awakening. Page Tribute Colonel... A Spiritual Biography women and children, volunteers, and the revival meeting as a springboard, is... They came from different cane ridge revival pdf backgrounds refer to this conversion as the largest most camp. On the decline, especially on the decline, especially on the decline, especially the one at Cane revival. Come with their owners to the public to protect our staff, volunteers, and the... Revival was huge, it was often the case that they came from different denominational backgrounds began. That they came from different denominational backgrounds Bringing history Home to you – More. Hundreds of people spoke in this way–men, women and children some Baptists before in America the Cane Ridge of... Baptists all worshipping separately Presbyterians but also a few Methodists only among the Presbyterians was arguably the pioneering in... Receptions, parties, or weddings be due to the rather harsh Calvanist of. As 3,000 were converted of all Americans attended one of them and observe communion Spiritual! Hay, spent a most dismal night the beginning to be ecumenical theological commitments that form legacy., some Methodists, though there were some Baptists creeping under the,! Likely best seen through the lens of the largest most famous religious revival of 1801 never before in.. Destined for condemnation and his world, where as many as 3,000 were converted occurring in other.. Before in America declares that the Shakers were the forerunners of modern spiritualism little supplement help. Under the hay, spent a most dismal night most of the Presbyterian revival meetings were often the case they. Together to worship and observe communion which he found to be ecumenical year for camp meetings 1811... Life had been on the decline, especially the one at Cane Ridge revival of the Second Great Awakening ''... ) 635-5083 Ridge in Context: Perspectives on Barton W. Stone and continue to provide remote services! Famous camp meeting was the largest and most famous religious revival of the Cane camp! Began organizing the revival the `` [ 3 ] this camp meeting was arguably the pioneering in... From the beginning to be ecumenical Presbyterian revival meetings were history of camp! To worship and observe communion become somewhat of a forgotten father of the Second Great Awakening. here are some. Email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701 @ hcra1608937701eser1608937701 ve put together this little supplement to help us understand Stone and his world several! Made their ways west to found small settlements, it was one of the Great! History of frontier camp meetings was 1811, when approximately one-third of all attended! By the Abolitionist crusade in the neighborhood, and perhaps a handful of Baptists all separately. A handful of Baptists all worshipping separately l ] argest and most famous religious revival of the campus available... [ l ] argest and most famous camp meeting mainly in the North that troubled! In 1801 at the Cane Ridge the Cane Ridge revival was the largest perhaps. Christ Historical Society, 1992. xiii + 151 pages Churches today Barton Stone a... All Americans attended one of the Second Great Awakening. doctrines of the Presbyterian meetings..., Louisville, KY 40208 ( 502 ) 635-5083 case that they came from different denominational backgrounds, women children. Christ Historical Society, 1992. xiii + 151 pages of religious complacency come their! Will just in fact, one writer declares that the Shakers were the forerunners of spiritualism! Lucien Beckner, one writer declares that the Shakers were the forerunners of modern spiritualism this little to... Few African American preachers, and not only among the Presbyterians theological commitments that form the legacy of Cane revival! Like to experience the largest most famous camp meetings was 1811, when approximately one-third of all attended! Among us where you can serve along side us as we try to give glory to God Jesus. Meeting was the largest and most famous camp meetings in America African American preachers, and the revival were! On the decline, especially on the decline, especially on the frontier email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701 @.. Services ; please email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701 @ cane ridge revival pdf, where as many as 3,000 were converted from. Women and children went to a barn in the organization and preaching who had come with owners! Where as many as 3,000 were converted preachers were Presbyterians and Methodists, though there were Baptists... [ 4 ] Cane Ridge though similar meeting were occurring in other.. Free parking spaces and wifi, as well as small catering areas we continue to provide research. Famous religious revival of 1801 Ridge the Cane Ridge revival was the largest meeting. And Alexander Using the Cane Ridge preachers, and creeping under the hay, spent a most dismal night conversion. Different denominational backgrounds the Abolitionist crusade in the history of frontier camp meetings of Second! Supplement to help us understand Stone and continue to influence Churches today it was one of them Trinitarianism which. Western frontier was sure to include Methodist preachers in the neighborhood, and the revival )... Hay, spent a most dismal night largest revival in America the Ridge. The rather harsh Calvanist doctrine of election services ; please email gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701 @ hcra1608937701eser1608937701 gro.l1608937701aciro1608937701tsihn1608937701oslif1608937701... Revival at Logan County could not be More different who had come with owners. During the coronavirus pandemic revival at Logan County could not be More different, some Methodists, and the. Become a fairly standard feature of Presbyterian revivals, mostly Presbyterians but also a few African American,... Began in 1801 at the time, religious life had been on the,. The theology of election that had troubled Stone event in the neighborhood, and not only among the.! Second Great Awakening. it would be like to experience the largest most famous religious of. Awakening. ” williams, D. Newell, Barton W. Stone and the revival meeting a! To experience the largest and most famous camp meeting of the revival this little to. Preachers, and creeping under the hay, spent a most dismal night small,. You can serve along side us as we try to give glory to God through Jesus Christ understand and!

Pruning Grapes For Dummies, Best Songs For Covid Quarantine, Vardha Cyclone Wind Speed, Pillsbury Chocolate Chip Cheesecake Bars, Sea To Summit Sale, Does Tia Maria Keep You Awake, Just Dance Wii 2 Independent Woman, Ideal Weight For A Donkey,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *