26Dec

theories of deviance

Émile Durkheim believed that deviance is a necessary part of a successful society. Theories of deviance were thus potentially wider by far in their reach than criminology and they made the criminal law, criminalization, and the facts of crime newly and interestingly problematic. Reasons for deviance vary, and different explanations have been proposed. Theories of Deviance. Social disorganization theory, strain theory, and cultural deviance theory represent three functionalist perspectives on deviance in society. Theories of Deviance Applied to Drug Use Since the dawn of society there have been people whose behavior differed from the rest of society. Deviance, like conformity, is shaped by society. The theory primarily pertains to formal deviance, using biological reasons to explain criminality, though it can certainly extend to informal deviance. THEORIES OF DEVIANCE exposes students to theoretical foundation statements from diverse sociological perspectives. Marxist Theories of Crime and Deviance - Law Creation. ALEXANDER LIAZOS AND CONFLICT THEORY OF DEVIANCE. Émile Durkheim: The Essential Nature of Deviance. Merton’s strain theory is an important contribution to the study of crime and deviance – in the 1940s it helped to explain why crime continued to exist in countries, such as America, which were experiencing increasing economic growth and wealth. The medicalization of deviance, the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition, is an important shift that has transformed the way society views deviance. Assignment 2: Theories of Deviance: Interview Analysis. Deviance is “the recognized violation of cultural norms” (Macionis, 2015, p. 198). Sociologists who apply this theory study social structure and social function. His theory states that criminal deviance is inherited and this inheritance is visible in the shape of the human skull. This theory believes that society pushes individuals toward deviance by overemphasizing the importance of success while failing to provide legitimate means to … Craig is an experienced Sociology teacher and examiner and is known as The Sociology Guy on social media. Share: Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin Share on Google Share by email. Who defines what is deviant and how to people come to behave that way? According to the cognitive development theory, criminal and deviant behavior results from the way in which individuals organize their thoughts around morality and the law. Not everyone agrees about why some people break rules while others follow them. Take, for example, the case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, Lemert (1967) and others came to propose that attention should shift away from deviant acts and people towards the phenomena of control. Cesare Lombroso. Theories and Examples of Deviance. Psychological theories of deviance do not necessarily have a biological element. Print page. US schools are currently the only schools that consider biological theories of deviance in any detail. Those who follow the work of Karl Marx concerning criminology are known as Marxist criminologist. Take, for example, the case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). May als… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It provides the key passages about deviance that should be read in the original and offers students a varied theoretical background for the study of deviance. The Continuing Relevance of Strain Theory . A biological interpretation of formal deviance was first advanced by the Italian School of Criminology, a school of thought originating from Italy during the mid-nineteenth century. Functions of Deviance. The Three Main Theories of Deviance and Their Strengths and Weaknesses A functionalist analysis of deviance looks for the source of deviance in the nature of society rather than in the biological or psychological nature of the individual. Lawrence Kohlberg, a developmental psychologist, theorized that there are three levels of moral reasoning.During the first stage, called the pre-conventional stage, … Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. Title of the Presentation Chapter Four: Major Theories of Deviance • Anomie Theory • Conflict Theories • Labeling Theory • Control Theory • Learning or Socialization Theory 2. What is social deviance? In defining deviance, there is a different or unexpected action when compared to an established standard. Recorded with http://screencast-o-matic.com Help us caption & translate this video! Major theory Related explanation Summary of explanation; Functionalist: Durkheim’s views: Deviance has several functions: (a) it clarifies norms and increases conformity, (b) it strengthens social bonds among the people reacting to the deviant, and (c) it can help lead to positive social change. Durkheim argued that deviance is a normal and necessary part of any society because it contributes to the social order. Biological theories of deviance have been seen as racist, since ideas such as eugenics have been justified with these theories. Labeling theory tries to explain deviant behavior by suggesting that people given a negative or deviant label by society can be influenced by that label. Theories of deviance 1 1. Explanatory Theories of Deviance. The sociological discipline that deals with crime (behavior that violates laws) is criminology (also known as criminal justice). THE ABC’s of DEVIANCE A = Attitudes Achieved statuses based upon beliefs or convictions B = Behaviors Often Achieved statuses based on outward actions. Deviant behavior can also be explained by psychological trauma in one’s past. Robert K. Merton’s strain theory of deviance argues that some deviant behavior, such as drug addiction, is caused by the relinquishment by certain individuals of socially-acceptable goals. The labeling theory of deviance is influenced by symbolic interaction. Sociology Student videos Crime and Deviance; Craig Gelling. Deviance - Deviance - Sociological perspectives: French sociologist Émile Durkheim viewed deviance as an inevitable part of how society functions. According to the functionalist theory, crime and deviance arise due to the way a society is structured. Each of these theories can be applied to the concept of deviance. 1. The theory of atavism, also referred to as sociobiology, was a concept developed by the criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1835 – 1909) that offers a biological explanation for criminal deviance. He argued that deviance is a basis for change and innovation, and it is also a way of defining or clarifying important social norms. -- theory argues that in the last 100+ years, there has been a shift in which social institution primary is associated with the labeling/"handling" of deviance and deviants. Foreign schools only mention these ideas briefly and refute them with sociological studies in social deviance courses. There are many different theories and perspectives on why people do things like abuse drugs, and although we my never have all the answers, sociology still help us to understand the problem better. Sociological Theories of Deviance Anomie theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist. This video outlines the work of Lemert who wrote about about primary deviance and secondary deviance. ). How Cognitive Development Theory Explains Deviance . You may recall there are three dominant theoretical perspectives in sociology: social conflict theory, structural functional theory and symbolic interaction theory. Deviance can be criminal or non‐criminal. In the 1960s, Robert Merton used the term to describe the differences between socially accepted goals and the availability of means to achieve those goals. The crux of Karl Marx theory is that, society is evolving continuously and evolution is inevitable. Now that you have learned some of the main theories of deviance, you are ready to put your sociological perspective in gear and find out what other people’s views are on this topic. Psychological theories of deviance do not necessarily have a biological element. Historically Few people rule and other were being ruled […] Explanations of deviance attempt to account for why non normative behavior occurs. https://amara.org/v/C0ACG/ In earlier times in Western Europe and America, the religious institutions had the social power to define/label deviant behavior and to "treat" it (e.g., exorcisms, etc. Lemert postulated that after someone carries out a deviant act (primary deviance) the reaction of others can lead to further (secondary) deviance. (Some explanatory formulations turn the equation around and ask why normative – but for them, the logic is the same.) The second approach to deviance encompasses explanatory theories. Deviant behavior can also be explained by psychological trauma in one's past. By exploring theories of social deviance, we can begin to understand factors – such as age, race, class, gender and location – influencing drug usage. A deviance might be an activity that is considered strange or unacceptable by society. Deviance from conflict perspective can be explain by breaking up the theories of Karl Marx. This lesson will focus on the social conflict theory of deviance. French sociologist Émile Durkheim based his work on this theory. Functionalists have the viewpoint that shared norms and values are important to social order and the success of society. Social-Conflict Theory Of Deviance And Social Control In Society. According to sociologists like Emile Durkheim, George Herbert Mead, and Kai T. Erikson, deviance is functional to society and keeps stability by defining boundaries.In 1966 Erikson expanded labeling theory to include the functions of deviance, illustrating how societal reactions to deviance stigmatize the offender and separate him or her from the rest of society. [1] : 204 The labelling theory helps to explain this shift, as behaviour that used to be judged morally are now being transformed into an objective clinical diagnosis. 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